Al dente: Italian term used to describe pasta that is cooked until it offers a slight resistance to the bite.
Bake: to cook by dry heat.
usually used generally to refer to grilling done outdoors or over an
open charcoal or wood fire. More specifically, barbecue refers to long,
slow direct heat cooking, including liberal basting with a barbecue
Baste: to moisten foods during cooking with pan drippings or special sauce to add flavour and prevent drying.
Batter: a mixture containing flour and liquid, thin enough to pour.
Beat: to mix rapidly in order to make a mixture smooth and light by incorporating as much air as possible.
Blanch: to immerse in rapidly boiling water and allow to cook slightly.
Blend: to incorporate two or more ingredients thoroughly.
Boil: to heat a liquid until bubbles break continually on the surface.
Broil: to cook on a grill under strong, direct heat.
Caramelise: to heat sugar in order to turn it brown and give it a special taste.
Chop: to cut solids into pieces with a sharp knife or other chopping device.
Clarify: to separate and remove solids from a liquid, thus making it clear.
to soften a fat, especially butter, by beating it at room temperature.
Butter and sugar are often creamed together, making a smooth, soft
Cure: to preserve meats by drying and salting and/or smoking.
to dissolve the thin glaze of juices and brown bits on the surface of a
pan in which food has been friend, sautéed or roasted. To do this, add
liquid and stir and scrape over high heat, thereby adding flavour to the
liquid for use as a sauce.
Dice: to cut food in small cubes of uniform size and shape.
Dissolve: to cause a dry substance to pass into solution in a liquid.
Dredge: to sprinkle or coat with flour or other fine substance.
Drizzle: to sprinkle drops of liquid lightly over food in a casual manner.
Fillet: as a verb, to remove the bones from meat or fish.
Flake: to break lightly into small pieces.
Flambé: to flame foods by dousing in some form of potable alcohol and setting alight.
to incorporate a delicate substance, such as whipped cream or beaten
egg whites, into another substance without releasing air bubbles. Cut
down through mixture with spoon, whisk or fork; go across bottom of
bowl, up and over, close to surface. The process is repeated, while
slowly rotating the bowl, until the ingredients are thoroughly blended.
Fricassee: to cook by braising; usually applied to fowl or rabbit.
Fry: to cook in hot fat.
to cook with a thin sugar syrup cooked to crack stage; mixture may be
thickened slightly. Also, to cover with a thin, glossy icing.
Grate: to rub on a grater that separates the food in various sizes of bits or shreds.
Grill: to cook on a grill over intense heat.
Grind: to process solids by hand or mechanically to reduce them to tiny particles.
Julienne: to cut vegetables, fruits or cheeses into thin strips.
Knead: to work and press dough with the palms of the hands or mechanically, to develop the gluten in flour.
Lukewarm: neither cool nor warm; approximately body temperature.
to flavour and moisturise pieces of meat, poultry, seafood or vegetable
by soaking them in or brushing them with a liquid mixture of seasonings
known as a marinade.
Meunière: dredged with flour and sautéed in butter.
Mince: to cut or chop foods into extremely small pieces.
Pan-broil: to cook uncovered in a hot fry pan, pouring off fat as it accumulates.
Pan-fry: to cook in small amounts of fat.
Parboil: to boil until partially cooked; to blanch.
Pare: to remove the outermost skin of a fruit or vegetable.
Peel: to remove the peels from vegetables or fruits.
Pickle: to preserve meats, vegetables and fruits in brine.
Pit: to remove pits from fruits.
Planked: to cook on a thick hardwood plank.
Plump: to soak dried fruits in liquid until they swell.
Poach: to cook very gently in hot liquid kept just below the boiling point.
to mash foods until perfectly smooth by hand, by rubbing through a
sieve or food mill, or by whirling in a blender or food processor.
Reduce: to boil down to reduce the volume.
Refresh: to run cold water over food that has been parboiled, to stop the cooking process quickly.
Render: to make solid fat into liquid by melting it slowly.
Roast: to cook by dry heat in an oven.
Sauté: to cook and/or brown food in a small amount of hot fat.
Scald: to bring to a temperature just below the boiling point.
Sear: to brown very quickly by intense heat.
Shred: to cut or tear in small, long, narrow pieces.
Sift: to put one or more dry ingredients through a sieve or sifter.
to cook slowly over low heat at a temperature of about 180. The surface
of the liquid should be barely moving, broken from time to time by
slowly rising bubbles.
Skim: to remove
impurities, whether scum or fat, from the surface of the liquid during
cooking, resulting in a clear, cleaner-tasting final produce.
to cook in steam in a pressure cooker, deep well cooker, double oiler
or a steamer made by fitting a rack in a kettle with tight cover.
Sterilise: to destroy micro-organisms by boiling, dry heat or steam.
Stew: to simmer slowly in a small amount of liquid for a long time.
Stir: to mix ingredients with a circular motion until well blended of uniform consistency.
Toss: to combine ingredients with a lifting motion.
Truss: to secure poultry with string or skewers, to hold its shape while cooking.
Whip: to beat rapidly to incorporate air and produce expansion, as in heavy cream or egg whites.